What sphinx of cement and aluminum bashed open their skulls and ate up their brains and imagination? Ashcans and unobtainable dollars! Children screaming under the stairways!
Historical development in Western culture Fable The origins of fable are lost in the mists of time. Fables appear independently in ancient Indian and Mediterranean cultures.
The Western tradition begins effectively with Aesop 6th century bcof whom little or nothing is known for certain; but before him the Greek poet Hesiod 8th century bc recounts the fable of the hawk and the nightingale, while fragments of similar tales survive in Archilochus, the 7th-century-bc warrior-poet.
Within years of the first Aesopian inventions, the name of Aesop was firmly identified with the genreas if he, not a collective folk, were its originator. Like the Greek philosopher Socrates, Aesop was reputed to have been ugly but wise. Legend connected him with the island of Samos; the historian Herodotus believed him to have been a slave.
The poetic resources of the form developed slowly. A versified Latin collection made by Phaedrusa freed slave in the house of the Roman emperor Augustus, included fables invented by the poet, along with the traditional favourites, which he retold with many elaborations and considerable grace.
Phaedrus may also have been the first to write topically allusive fables, satirizing Roman politics. A similar extension of range marks the work of the Hellenized Roman Babriuswriting in the 2nd century ad.
Among the Classical authors who advanced upon Aesopian formulas may be named the Roman poet Horace, the Greek biographer Plutarch, and the great satirist Lucian of Samosata.
Beast epic In the Middle Ages, along with every other type of allegoryfable flourished. Toward the end of the 12th century, Marie de France made a collection of over tales, mingling beast fables with stories of Greek and Roman worthies.
Expanded, the form of the fable could grow into what is called the beast epic, a lengthy, episodic animal story, replete with hero, villain, victim, and endless epic endeavour. One motive for thus enlarging upon fable was the desire to parody epic grandeur: Most famous of these works is a 12th-century collection of related satiric tales called Renard the Foxwhose hero is a fox symbolizing cunning man.
Soon Renard the Fox had achieved universal favour throughout Europe. But the form has been taken seriously, as, for example, by the political satirist George Orwellwho, in his novel Animal Farmused it to attack Stalinist Communism.
Influence of Jean de La Fontaine The fable has normally been of limited length, however, and the form reached its zenith in 17th-century France, at the court of Louis XIVespecially in the work of Jean de La Fontaine.
He published his Fables in two segments: The Fables follow the Aesopian pattern, but the later ones branch out to satirize the court, the bureaucrats attending it, the church, the rising bourgeoisie—indeed the whole human scene.
He was a skeptic, not unkind but full of the sense of human frailty and ambition. His satiric themes permitted him an enlargement of poetic diction; he could be eloquent in mocking eloquence or in contrast use a severely simple style.
His range of tone and style was admirably reflected in a version of his works made by a 20th-century American poet, Marianne Moore.
The 19th century saw the rise of literature written specifically for childrenin whom fable found a new audience.Icons and systems of iconography. Throughout the history of their development, religious iconography and symbolism have been closely interrelated. Many religious symbols can be understood as conceptual abbreviations, simplifications, abstractions, and stylizations of pictures or of pictorial impressions of the world of sense objects that are manifested in iconographic representations.
In the schools of the Mysteries, when aspirants for the higher life were wont to quit the outer world and enter temples or sanctuaries of initiation, prolonged periods were allotted to the practical achievement of what is briefly summarized in our first degree.
Fable, parable, and allegory - Historical development in Western culture: The origins of fable are lost in the mists of time. Fables appear independently in ancient Indian and Mediterranean cultures.
The Western tradition begins effectively with Aesop (6th century bc), of whom little or nothing is known for certain; but before him the Greek poet Hesiod (8th century bc) recounts the fable of. As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Allegory (in the sense of the practice and use of allegorical devices and works) has occurred widely throughout history in all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that.
A parable is a short tale that illustrates a universal truth; it is a simple attheheels.com sketches a setting, describes an action, and shows the attheheels.com may sometimes be distinguished from similar narrative types, such as the allegory and the apologue..
A parable often involves a character who faces a moral dilemma or one who makes a bad decision and then suffers the unintended consequences. "A fable or parable; is a short allegory with one definite moral."--Encyc. Brit.) In every allegory there is a twofold sense--the immediate or historic, which is understood from the words, and the ultimate, which is concerned with the things signified by the words.