Rich presentation, June 16, Between andfor example, 1, American soldiers lost their lives fighting in Afghanistan and 4, were killed serving in Iraq.
Racism can be enacted individually or institutionally. Institutions can behave in ways that are overtly racist i. Most of the underlying causes for the health inequities are due to institutional racism.
As Professor Mary Douglas explains: The more severe the conflict, the more useful to understand the institutions that are doing most of the thinking. Exhortation will not help. Passing laws against discrimination will not help.
Only changing institutions can help. We should address them, not individuals, and address them continuously, not only in crises. Institutional behavior can injure Blacks, and when it does, it is racist in outcome, if not in intent. Racism is both overt and covert, and it takes three closely related forms: Individual racism consists of overt acts by individuals that cause death, injury, destruction of property, or denial of services or opportunity.
Institutional racism is more subtle but no less destructive. Systemic racism is the basis of individual and institutional racism; it is the value system that is embedded in a society that supports and allows discrimination.
Institutional and systemic racism establishes separate and independent barriers to access and quality of health care. Institutional racism does not have to result from human agency or intention. Thus, racial discrimination can occur in institutions even when the institution does not intend to make distinctions on the basis of race.
In fact, institutional discrimination can occur without any awareness that it is happening. To understand institutional racism, it is important to understand the interaction between prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice is an attitude that is based on limited information or stereotypes.
While prejudice is usually negative, it can also be positive.
Both positive and negative prejudices are damaging because they deny the individuality of the person. No one is completely free of prejudices, although they may not have any significant prejudice against a particular group.
Oppression is the systematic subjugation of a social group by another social group with access to social power. Power is the ability to control access to resources, the ability to influence others, and access to decision makers. Discrimination is behavior, intentional or not, which negatively treats a person or a group of people based on their racial origins.
In the context of racism, power is a necessary precondition for discrimination. Racism depends on the ability to give or withhold social benefits, facilities, services, opportunities etc. The source of power can be formal or informal, legal or illegal, and is not limited to traditional concepts of power.
Intent is irrelevant; the focus is on the result of the behavior. It is very rare that an institution has neither racial bias nor prejudices and engages in no discriminatory behavior. When institutions take the position that they are non-racist, it is possible that the institutions operate in arenas where they have very little contact with Blacks.
However, it is more likely that they are in denial about the existence of either prejudices or discrimination. For example, an institution could hold a belief that Blacks are more likely to abuse pain medication, but notwithstanding those prejudices, pain medications are prescribed to Blacks equitably.
In this situation, the institution makes no difference in health care based on race. This form of racism involves institutions that harbor biases or prejudices but are either too timid to discriminate or who are actively working on not discriminating.
The prejudices or biases are still present, but these institutions do not act on them. For example, individuals in an institution could hold a belief that Blacks are more likely to abuse pain medication, and because of those prejudices, pain medications are prescribed to Blacks differently than they would be to Whites.
Most people are familiar with this form of racism. Overt racism involves actively and intentionally expressing bias or prejudice and actively discriminating against others in public and private ways. Most discrimination in health care is not overt.
For example, an institution could hold no negative beliefs about Blacks but prescribe pain medications differently to Blacks as an indirect result of some other policies.I illustrate this through an analysis of the response to a racism hoax at Oberlin College in , centering around an anti-racist convocation, which I compare to a religious revival meeting.
To Read: Analysis of a Racism Hoax. - Racism, Society, and Martin Espada's Beloved Spic On April 4, America experienced the tragic loss of one of its greatest social leaders, Martin Luther King, Jr.
He was a pivotal leader in the civil rights movement who permeated American history as a man who maintained the importance of nonviolent social change. Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society.
Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others. Yet discrimination and racism between racially marginalized groups has been noted.
Racism is complicated, and has an individual aspect of prejudice.
But even worse is the reality that generations of racist attitudes are now woven into our . Racism does not allow for a collective contribution of its citizens, which is a critical component of a country’s development and success. If a class of people is not allowed to be educated, they cannot make important contributions to society in technological, economical, and medical arenas.
We believe in a society free of economic oppression, racism and discrimination in which every person lives in a safe and healthy environment, is respected and included, and has agency over the decisions that shape their lives.