Introduction So much has been written about the role of the Human Resource Management HRM function and its ability to respond to competitive pressures Foote, Within such approaches is an implicit assumption that gaining employee commitment to the organisation's goals is possible and indeed crucial Foote, There is evidence, however, of a gap between the rhetoric and reality of HRM in that many organisations are eroding job security, while at the same time increasing the demands made of employees Foote,
We have structured this page around three basic questions: What is organizational learning? Is it individuals that learn in organizations, or can organizations learn themselves? From this exploration we suggest that there are particular qualities associated with learning in organizations.
The page links into discussions on different pages of the encyclopaedia of informal education. Learning For all the talk of learning amongst policymakers and practitioners, there is a surprising lack of attention to what it entails.
In Britain and Northern Ireland, for example, theories of learning do not figure strongly in professional education programmes for teachers and those within different arenas of informal education. It is almost as if it is something is unproblematic and that can be taken for granted.
Get the instructional regime right, the message seems to be, and learning as measured by tests and assessment regimes will follow.
This lack of attention to the nature of learning inevitably leads to an impoverishment of education. In order to start thinking about learning we need to make the simple distinction between learning as a product and as a process. The latter takes us into the arena of competing learning theories — ideas about how we might gain understandings.
The former takes us to learning as either a change in behaviour or a change in our mental state. To explore these areas go to: Is it a process or a product? How might it be approached? Four different orientations to theorizing learning: The behaviourist movement in psychology has looked to the use of experimental procedures to study behaviour in relation to the environment.
In other words, they were concerned with cognition — the act or process of knowing. In this orientation the basic concern is for human growth.
We look to the work of Maslow and Rogers as expressions of this approach. It is not so much that learners acquire structures or models to understand the world, but they participate in frameworks that that have structure.
Learning involves participation in a community of practice.
Two developments have been highly significant in the growth of the field. First it has attracted the attention of scholars from disparate disciplines who had hitherto shown little interest in learning processes.
A consequence of this is that the field has become conceptually fragmented, and representatives of different disciplines now vie over who has the correct model of organizational learning….
The second development is that many consultants and companies have caught onto the commercial significance of organizational learning… Much of the effort of these theorists has been devoted to identifying templates, or ideal forms, which real organizations could attempt to emulate.
Easterby-Smith and Araujo A helpful way of making sense of writing on organizational learning is to ask whether writers fall into one of two basic camps. The dividing line between them is the extent to which the writers emphasize organizational learning as a technical or a social process.
Here we can again turn to Easterby-Smith and Araujo The technical view assumes that organizational learning is about the effective processing, interpretation of, and response to, information both inside and outside the organization.
This information may be quantitative or qualitative, but is generally explicit and in the public domain…. The social perspective on organization learning focuses on the way people make sense of their experiences at work. From this view, learning is something that can emerge from social interactions, normally in the natural work setting.
Lave and Wenger and Wenger provide a fascinating example of the social perspective in action in their studies of apprenticeship and communities of practice. Here we will explore the notions of single- and double-loop learning and community of practice.
We will also look at the notions of experiential learning and informal learning. Single- and double-loop learning and organizational learning.
Double-loop learning involves interrogating the governing variables themselves and often involves radical changes such as the wholesale revision of systems, alterations in strategy and so on. We examine the notion of theories of action, single and double-loop learning, and the organizational orientations and practices linked to each.
But is there really such a thing?
We examine the current debates and conceptualizations and what some of the implications may be for those interested in developing the educative qualities of organizational life.
This notion has been popularized by Lave and Wenger and Wenger We explore the idea that organizations may be a constellation of communities of practice.HER review of The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning and Strategic Planning in Education.
Future Warfare: Rethinking the Principles of War - project by the Office of Force Transformation (OFT). Have the Principles of War changed? Some think it is an interesting question, and to that end we have put together a team to examine this subject. Colonel (Retired) Joe Osborne is failing badly at retirement.
He is a Research Fellow with the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), President of Osborne Strategic – a defense and security consulting firm, Co-founder of Other World Distributors, and a PhD Student. Read chapter Chapter Two - Literature Review: TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis Strategic Planning and Management in Trans.
Learning in organizations. In recent years there has been a lot of talk of ‘organizational learning’. Here we explore the theory and practice of such learning via pages in the encyclopaedia of informal education.
a literature review of the strategy and strategic management concepts from a historical perspective is carried out. Afterwards, the phenomenography research is described and explained.
The methodology adopted in the especially among theorists. Mintzberg et al.  argue that strategy is the enemy of the.