Sodomy and Other "Crimes Against Nature" King Henry VIII Until the nineteenth century, same-sex sexual activity particularly between men was referred to in Anglo-American texts under the terms "unnatural acts," "crimes against nature," "sodomy," or "buggery. This included masturbation, "fornication," bestiality, and oral or anal sex whatever the sex of the participants. Most commonly it referred to anal sex between men. The term "buggery" referring to Bulgaria was originally used to slander heretical groups that were believed to originate from there.
It also seems to be particularly entrenched in sport, exercise and physical education PE settings of all kinds. But why is this the case?
The authors, Kerry S.
Latner, whose pioneering work appears in the International Journal of Psychology, had two goals in mind. First, they wanted to address the lack of quantitative work on homophobia in PE and sport settings.
Second, they wanted to examine the role played by established sociological constructs in homophobia. Since other forms of bias such as racism are associated with conservative ideologies and personality traits such as authoritarianism and social dominance orientation SDO - a preference for social hierarchiesthe authors wanted to see whether such traits were also associated with homophobia.
Because heterosexual masculinity and physical identity are defined by physical attributes for both men and women which gay men and lesbians are often seen as threateningthe authors also explored the relationship between 'sporting identity and athletic self-concept related constructs' and homophobic attitudes.
The conclusions bore out the researchers' hypothesis: The differences between the two groups appear to be explained by differences in the conservative psychological traits; higher scores for authoritarianism and SDO were significant predictors.
In addition, physical identity and athletic attributes based around masculine ideals also appear related to prejudice in males. The authors conclude that sport settings may benefit from 'prejudice reduction initiatives that address the overinvestment in physical attributes and masculine ideas' and which reinforce social equality and diversity.
Such initiatives also need to address the contextual and psychosocial factors that underpin homophobia. While there is of course no suggestion that sportiness itself encourages prejudice, the authors warn that the high levels of anti-gay and anti-lesbian sentiment they found 'may be due to the contextual influences that enhance or support the expression of homophobia'.
In other words, prejudice can become entrenched in a group over time, in accordance with social identity theory SIT. The findings presented in this ground-breaking study provide vital new quantitative evidence to support qualitative and anecdotal reports that homophobia is higher in sport and PE than in other settings, making it essential reading for the educators, coaches and sporting professionals who must work together to root it out.The word homophobia means fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals.
It can also mean hatred of and disparagement of homosexual people, their lifestyle, their sexual behavior, or culture, and is generally used to assert bigotry .
Homophobia is an exaggerated, irrational or extreme fear of gay men or lesbian women, and will usually lead them to fear and sometimes hate these groups and .
Homophobia. fear,digust,anger,discomfort,and aversion that people experience in dealing with gay people. Psychology of Sexual Orientation. 43 terms. Ch#9 Sexual Orientation. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. 58 terms. AMERICAN CULTURES FINAL.
Vietnam War. 10 terms. LBJ and the Great Society. Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study homosexuality as a discrete phenomenon. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, pathological models of homosexuality were standard.
Psychologists later began responding to the needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people including, most. Peter Hegarty examines the main strands of research in lesbian and gay psychology that have emerged since the de-pathologizing of homosexuality in the s that followed from the recognition of homophobia and societal prejudice.
The Psychology behind Homosexuality: In general, a variety of biological and behavioral traits of homosexual people are different from those of heterosexual people.
There are biological associations of sexual orientations found among brain differences, genetic influences, and prenatal hormonal influences.