His approach is based on an ecologically conscious philosophy that sets new standards for the relationships between the built and natural environment. His buildings and urban projects have transformed cityscapes and defined as well as restored city centers around the world. These landmark projects pursue energy independence by harnessing the power of natural forces on site and striking a balance with their environmental contexts. Gordon has been published extensively and has exhibited, lectured and taught widely in the U.
The capitalist world - system has experienced long cycles of economic and political integration for centuries and these have been interspersed by periods of social resistance to capitalist globalization, in which disadvantaged, exploited and dominated groups contest the hierarchies that global capitalism and hegemonic states have constructed.
In the mit business plan competition arab world institute period the intensification of capitalist globalization has been accompanied by a strengthening of social resistance and the emergence of new social movements that resist neoliberal globalization and attempt to build alternatives.
Careful study of these long waves of globalization and resistance can provide us with important insights that are relevant to the task of building a more humane and democratic global commonwealth in the 21st century.
Research and teaching on the role of the new social movements and the historical dialectic between globalization, resistance, and democratization should be a central aspect of the new critical Global ization Studies. Waves of Decolonization, These social forces are therefore fundamentally progressive rather than reactive.
It is true that among the progressives there are differences with regard to the analysis of the historical situation, the emphasis on one or another aspect of global social problems, and also with regard to strategies for overcoming the inadequacies of the current global social order.
Some emphasize local self-reliance while others focus on the reform or transformation of global institutions. Critical Global ization Studies should make the study of the role of these social movements, past, present and future, a central aspect of its approach to constructing knowledge and contributing to social change.
The study of world historical systems including comparative analysis of different world - systems uses whole world - systems i. All world - systems, large and small, experience oscillations in which interaction networks expand and larger-scale interactions become denser, and then the networks contract spatially and large scale interactions decrease in intensity.
The scientific study of globalization should begin with the recognition that globalization is a contested concept Gills One reason why there is so much confusion and contention about the meaning of globalization is that it is both a political ideology and a long-term structural process of spatial integration of formerly unconnected or only loosely connected peoples.
Neoliberalism replaced an earlier dominant paradigm — Keynesian national development — that focused state policies on the development of industrial capabilities in the context of institutions that were designed to increase the purchasing power of workers.
Neoliberals adopted several of the tactics and some of the ideological principles of the New Left — the attack on bureaucracies, direct action protests, and support for selected opposition movements in the non-core. We will study both structural globalization as integration and the globalization project in order to make sense out of contemporary world history.
Structural globalization has several different but inter-related dimensions. We find it useful to distinguish between two types of economic globalization trade and investmentand to conceptualize political and cultural globalization in terms of interaction networks that are analogous to economic globalization Chase-Dunn These waves of global economic integration were separated by a troubled trough of deglobalization and globalization backlash that included the decline of British hegemony, the Great Depression of the Mexican, Russian and Chinese revolutions, the worldwide depression of the s, the rise of fascism, World War II and the decolonization of the periphery.
This essay provides a brief summary of the main concepts and theoretical propositions that have come to be associated with the structural and comparative world - systems perspective on world history and a discussion of the implications of this approach for comprehending the contemporary period of globalization and globalization backlash.
World - Systems Theory The intellectual history of world-systems theory has roots in classical sociology, Marxian revolutionary theory, geopolitical strategizing and theories of social evolution.
The use of the hyphen emphasizes the idea of the whole system, the point being that all the human interaction networks small and large, from the household to global trade, constitute the world - system.
Rather at the present time it is all the people of the earth and all their cultural, economic and political institutions and the interactions and connections among them. Other versions drop the hyphen e. Denemark, Friedman, Gills and Modelski ; Gills Hyphen or not, the world - systems approach has long been far more internally differentiated than most of its critics have understood.
We work within the tradition of world - systems theory.
We agree on the necessity for structuralist long term historical sociological analysis of both the processes that led to the present global system going back many millennia and that there are many continuities from these historical patterns that are intrinsic to present-day capitalist accumulation and globalization patterns.
We contend that a focus on capital accumulation patterns and the formation of social forces of resistance to capitalist accumulation are key elements of a world - systems analysis of globalization.
Moreover, we both strongly agree on the necessity of maintaining a focus on the structurally reproduced inequalities and the differentiation of the core and peripheral and semiperiperhal zones of the capitalist world - system.
We agree that peripheral and semiperipheral zones play a very significant role not only in waves of capital accumulation on global scale but also in waves of resistance for understanding the past, the present and the future.
The world - systems perspective looks at human institutions over long periods of time and employs the spatial scale that is required for comprehending whole interaction systems.
Single societies have always interacted in consequential ways with neighboring societies, and so intersocietal interaction must be studied in order to understand social change. This does not mean that all the important processes causing social change are intersocietal, but rather that enough of them are so that it is usually disastrous to ignore intersocietal relations.
The world - systems perspective is neither Eurocentric nor core-centric, at least in principle. The main idea is simple: With the emergence of ocean-going transportation in the fifteenth century the multicentric Afroeurasian system incorporated important parts of the Western Hemisphere.
Before the incorporation of the Americas into the Afroeurasian system there were numerous local and regional world - systems intersocietal networks. Most of these became inserted into the expanding European-centered system largely by force, and their populations were mobilized to supply labor for a colonial economy that was repeatedly reorganized by the changing geopolitical and economic forces emanating from the European and later North American core societies.
This structural perspective on world history allows us to analyze the cyclical features of social change and the long-term trends of development in historical and comparative perspective. We can see the development of the modern world - system as driven primarily by capitalist accumulation and geopolitics in which businesses and states compete with one another for power and wealth.
Competition among states and capitals is conditioned by the dynamics of struggle among classes and by the resistance of peripheral and semiperipheral peoples to domination and exploitation from the core.
In the modern world - system the semiperiphery is composed of large and powerful countries in the Third World e.
Mexico, India, Brazil, China as well as smaller countries that have intermediate levels of economic development e.Economics is the study of how goods and services function in society. If you reflect on money not only as a spending device, but also as a currency that goes through a wide variety of processes, you should definitely consider taking a Master in attheheels.com://attheheels.com · INSEAD, the business school for the world, together with Cartier and McKinsey & Company are pleased to announce the six laureates of the edition of the Cartier Women’s Initiative Awards at the annual Awards ceremony held today at the Capella attheheels.com://attheheels.com The Business Plan The Business Plan In January I had the pleasure of organizing and moderating the Annual "Nuts and Bolts of Business Plans" seminar series at MIT.
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