Zulfiqar Ali Shah Islamic thought and sources influenced and made important contributions both to the radical Enlightenment and the early American Revolution. Some of the leading Founding Fathers were directly influenced by English thinkers such as John Locke, Isaac Newton, and Thomas Hobbes, who were also exposed to Islamic sciences, philosophy, theology, political thought, and morality. Thomas Jefferson, one of the most important Founding Fathers, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence ofand the third President of the United Statesidentified Francis Bacon, John Locke, and Isaac Newton as "the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception" in his letter ordering portraits of them from the American painter John Trumbull.
In a broad sense, calligraphy is merely hand-writing, a tool for recording and communicating; but in the Arab world it is an art, an art with a remarkable history; a form with great masters and revered traditions.
Beauty alone distinguishes calligraphy from ordinary handwriting; writing may express ideas, but to the Arab it must also express the broader dimension of aesthetics.
Historians disagree on both the birthplace and birthdate of Arabic writing, but the most widely accepted theory is that it developed from Nabataean, a west Aramaic dialect which served as the international language of the Middle East from about the fourth century, B. As the new Islamic faith emerged and spread, the Arabic of the Arabian Peninsula replaced Aramaic as the lingua franca of the area.
As we have noted elsewhere, the Arabs had a highly developed oral tradition in poetry even before they had an alphabet. Poetry was composed and committed to memory and was passed on in this manner from generation to generation. For fifteen years after his death, it existed only in oral form. In the seventh century, only consonants and long vowels were written; the short vowels had to be inferred by the reader.
But even more confusing was the fact that several consonants were written with the same symbol; only later was a system of dots above and below the letters devised in order to differentiate among them. Finally, in A. Over a period of centuries, calligraphy remained a supreme art form, replacing design, painting and sculpture.
Calligraphy filled not only palaces and mosques, but clothing, carpets, decorative items and literary works. From the Dome of the Mosque of the Rock in Jerusalem to the great mosques of Isfahan in Persia, calligraphy decorated, enhanced and even helped to visually unify the greatest Muslim structures.
The representations of Christian saints that beautify the Capella Palatina in Palermo, Sicily, bear inscriptions in kufic, the early Arabic script. Fulfilling the duty to pursue knowledge gave Muslims a head-start in education.
Among the early elementary educational institutions were the mosque schools which were founded by the Prophet himself; he sat in the mosque surrounded by a halqa circle of listeners, intent on his instructions. The formal pursuit of knowledge had existed in one form or another since the time of the Greeks.
The Arabs translated and preserved not only the teachings of the Greeks but those of the Indians and the Persians as well. More importantly, they used these basic teachings as a starting point from which to launch a mass revolution in education beginning during the Abbasid dynasty A.
During the Abbasid period, thousands of mosque schools were established throughout the Arab empire and the subjects of study were increased to include hadith the science of traditionfiqh jurisprudencephilology, poetry, rhetoric and others.
In tenth century Baghdad alone there were an estimated 3, mosques. Fourteenth century Alexandria had some 12, mosques, all of which played an important role in education. In the mosque school, the teacher sat on a cushion and leaned against a column or wall as his students sat around him listening and taking notes.
There was no age limit, nor were there any restrictions on women attending classes. Historians such as Ibn Khallikan reported that women also taught classes in which men took lessons. Few Westerners recognize the extent to which Arab women contributed to the social, economic and political life of the empire.
Arab women excelled in medicine, mysticism, poetry, teaching, and oratory and even took active roles in military conflicts. Current misconceptions are based on false stereotypes of Arab life and culture popularized by some journalists and "Orientalists. Classes were held at specific times and announced in advance by the teacher.
Students could attend several classes a day, sometimes traveling from one mosque to another. Teachers were respected by their students and there were formal, if unwritten, rules of behavi.
Laughing, talking, joking or disrespectful behavior of any kind were not permitted. Different teachers used various methods of instruction. Some preferred to teach from a text first and then to answer questions. Still others taught without the benefit of texts. Madrasas had existed long before Nizam al-Mulk, but his contribution was the popularization of this type of school.
The madrasa gave rise to various universities in the Arab empire and become the prototype of several early European universities. Founded in A. Today it attracts students from all over the world. The madrasas, which literally mean "places for learning," were the beginning of departmentalized schools where education was available to all.
The madrasas even provided student dormitories.
Each madrasa, depending on its location, had a specific curriculum.Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies (Arabic: كلية ابن سينا الأهلية للعلوم الطبية ) is the first private medical college of higher education under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi attheheels.com college is promoted by Al-Jedani Group of Hospitals, KSA.
It is located in the southern part of the historic city Jeddah, on.
IHTC is a noted knowledge platform for International Standard Healthcare and Tourism in India. The primary objective is to discuss on acute Technology Issues and Business Challenges currently faced in the Healthcare Sector. ARAB CIVILIZATION.
Introduction to the Arab World. The Arab homeland stretches some 5, miles— nearly twice the distance between New York and San Francisco—from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Central Africa in the south.
Ibn Sina Medical College (ISMC) is committed to create a cadre of high quality doctors both by medical knowledge and high moral values, dedicated for suffering human physically and psychologically in the nation and others across the geographical boundaries.
Residential Colleges Worldwide Robert J. O’Hara ([email protected]) A dormitory is organized to provide food and shelter; a college, to provide for the student’s intellectual, social, and personal development. Cross Cultural Poetics. hosted by Leonard Schwartz.
Image credit: Carlos David. Cross Cultural Poetics is produced in the studios of KAOS-FM at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington.