Group communication[ edit ] The first important research study of small group communication was performed in front of a live studio audience in Hollywood California by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the early and mid s. Bales made a series of important discoveries. First, group discussion tends to shift back and forth relatively quickly between the discussion of the group task and discussion relevant to the relationship among the members.
Group communication[ edit ] The first important research study of small group communication was performed in front of a live studio audience in Hollywood California by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the early and mid s. Bales made a series of important discoveries.
First, group discussion tends to shift back and forth relatively quickly between the discussion of the group task and discussion relevant to the relationship among the members. He believed that this shifting was the product of an implicit attempt to balance the demands of task completion and group cohesion, under the presumption that conflict generated during task discussion causes stress among members, which must be released through positive relational talk.
Second, task group discussion shifts from an emphasis on opinion exchange, through an attentiveness to values underlying the decision, to making the decision. This implication that group discussion goes through the same series of stages in the same order for any decision-making group is known as the linear phase model.
Third, the most talkative member of a group tends to make between 40 and 50 percent of the comments and the second most talkative member between 25 and 30, no matter the size of the group. Linear phase model[ edit ] The most influential of these discoveries has been the latter; the linear phase model.
The idea that all groups performing a given type of task go through the same series of stages in the same order was replicated through the s, s and s; with most finding four phases of discussion.
For example, communication researcher B. Aubrey Fisher showed groups going sequentially through an orientation stage, a conflict stage, a stage in which a decision emerges and a stage in which that decision is reinforced. First, all group data was combined before analysis, making it impossible to determine whether there were differences among groups in their sequence of discussion.
Second, group discussion content was compared across the same number of stages as the researcher hypothesized, such that if the researcher believed there were four stages to discussion, there was no way to find out if there actually were five or more.
In the s, communication researcher Marshall Scott Poole examined a sample of groups without making these errors and noted substantial differences among them in the number and order of stages.
Idea development[ edit ] Another milestone in the study of group discussion content was early s work by communication researchers Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell regarding the process by which groups examine individual proposed solutions to their problem.
In a procedure akin to the survival of the fittest, proposals viewed favorably would emerge later in discussion, whereas those viewed unfavorably would not; the authors referred to this process as "spiraling.
For example, in the s, social psychologist L. Richard Hoffman noted that odds of a proposal's acceptance is strongly associated with the arithmetical difference between the number of utterances supporting versus rejecting that proposal. More recent work has shown that groups differ substantially in the extent to which they spiral.
The bona fide group, as described by Linda L. Putnam and Cynthia Stohl infosters a sense of interdependence among the members of the group, along with specific boundaries that have been agreed upon by members over time.
Social influence in groups[ edit ] Work relevant to social influence in groups has a long history. Two early examples of social psychological research have been particularly influential.
The first of these was by Muzafer Sherif in using the autokinetic effect. Sherif asked participants to voice their judgments of light movement in the presence of others and noted that these judgments tended to converge. When asked why, many of these participants reported that they had originally made the correct judgment but after hearing the confederates, decided the judgments of several others the confederates should be trusted over theirs.
Informational influence occurs when group members are persuaded by the content of what they read or hear to accept an opinion; Sherif's study appears to be an example. Normative influence occurs when group members are persuaded by the knowledge that a majority of group members have a view.
Normative influence should not be confused with compliance, which occurs when group members are not persuaded but voice the opinions of the group majority. Although some of the participants in the Asch studies who conformed admitted that they had complied, the ones mentioned above who believed the majority to be correct are best considered to have been persuaded through normative influence.Benefits of Small Group Communication.
More possibilities can occur between 2 people than 1, or more to 3 than 2 and so forth.
Group often are able to foresee more difficulties than individuals working alone. Group solutions often obtain more support. Introduction to group communication Group communication is an extension of interpersonal communication where more than two individuals are involved in exchange of ideas, skills and interests.
A group is a number of people with a common goal who interact with one another to accomplish their goals, recognize one another’s existence and see.
In conclusion, ineffective group communication has great economic ramifications on the growth and development of the group. Most importantly, poor communication hinders members from voicing their concerns pertaining the .
Group Communication Conclusion. Group Communication Effective group communications come in forms of verbal and non-verbal techniques. Essential parts of the entire group’s contribution are that the group contains full participating members, the group is diverse, and that the diversity is recognized and respected (Hartley, ).
Techniques for Leading Group Discussions» Main Section.
find principles all can agree on, or come to a conclusion from which it can move on to further discussion; Many group discussions have no specific purpose except the exchange of ideas and opinions. Can often open communication channels among people who might not communicate in.
The Fundamentals of Small Group Communication provides the beginning student with basic concepts, skills, and practices to become an effective group member. Unlike other small group communication textbooks that revolve around group work and group presentations, this textbook centers on the individual group member.
Essay on Barriers to effective communication in a group: Effective communication is very significant for the determination of the company’s trend. It is important to note that effective communication fosters the attainment of the group’s preset goals. - Group Communication I conducted my group communication at Ysgol Bryn Castell, Cefn Glas. - Expectations and Personal Anxiety As I reflected on my experience with the team project, I found that at the conclusion of the project my attitude and opinion of group projects was more positive. Initially, the idea of a working on a group project. Communication Conclusion. Coming to Conclusions The conclusion of an essay is a key factor of the overall effectiveness of an essay. Often seen as a brief summary of the paper, the conclusion frequently revisits the thesis of the paper, sometimes repeating lines or words from the introduction verbatim. This almost textbook-like format can be .