This charming monster is equipped with razor-sharp steel claws like those of the demon Freddy in the popular horror film, Friday the 13th. With these spectacular nine-inch nails, the Heruka strips away beliefs and false notions of self so that the deceased is liberated into the ecstatic non-self beholding of the Bardos. In these essays I attempt to lay out the methodology for a clear and consistent critique of belief and belief-systems. I convey my immense gratitude in advance to any and all readers who dare to take this challenge.
Although inadequacies in quantifying personality traits and difficulties in studying estimates of time spans exceeding a few seconds have hampered scientific study, simple observation reveals marked individual differences in the ability to estimate time.
Sex differences have not been reliably established, but the… Physiological type theories The idea that people fall into certain personality type categories in relation to bodily characteristics has intrigued numerous modern psychologists as well as their counterparts among the ancients.
The idea that people must fall into one or another rigid personality class, however, has been largely dismissed. Two general sets of theories are considered here, the humoral and the morphological. Humoral theories Perhaps the oldest personality theory known is contained in the cosmological writings of the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles and in related speculations of the physician Hippocrates.
This theory, with its view that body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for more than 2, years. According to these early theorists, emotional stability as well as general health depend on an appropriate balance among the four bodily humours; an excess of one may produce a particular bodily illness or an exaggerated personality trait.
Thus, a person with an excess of blood would be expected to have a sanguine temperament—that is, to be optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. Too much black bile dark blood perhaps mixed with other secretions was believed to produce a melancholic temperament. An abundance of phlegm secreted in the respiratory passages was alleged to make people stolid, apatheticand undemonstrative.
As biological science has progressed, these primitive ideas about body chemistry have been replaced by more complex ideas and by contemporary studies of hormones, neurotransmitters, and substances produced within the central nervous systemsuch as endorphins. Morphological body type theories Related to the biochemical theories are those that distinguish types of personalities on the basis of body shape somatotype.
Such a morphological theory was developed by the German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer. In his book Physique and Characterfirst published inhe wrote that among his patients a frail, rather weak asthenic body build as well as a muscular athletic physique were frequently characteristic of schizophrenic patients, while a short, rotund pyknic build was often found among manic-depressive patients.
Kretschmer extended his findings and assertions in a theory that related body build and personality in all people and wrote that slim and delicate physiques are associated with introversion, while those with rounded heavier and shorter bodies tend to be cyclothymic—that is, moody but often extroverted and jovial.
Despite early hopes that body types might be useful in classifying personality characteristics or in identifying psychiatric syndromes, the relations observed by Kretschmer were not found to be strongly supported by empirical studies.
In the s more elaborate studies by William H. Sheldon in the United States developed a system for assigning a three-digit somatotype number to people, each digit with a range from 1 to 7. Thus, an extreme endomorph would bean extreme ectomorphand an average person Sheldon then developed a item list of traits that differentiated three separate categories of behaviours or temperaments.
The three-digit temperament scale appeared to be significantly related to the somatotype profile, an association that failed to excite personologists. Also during the s, personality studies began to consider the broader social context in which a person lived.
The American anthropologist Margaret Mead studied the patterns of cooperation and competition in 13 primitive societies and was able to document wide variations in those behaviours in different societies.
In her book Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societiesshe showed that masculinity is not necessarily expressed through aggressiveness and that femininity is not necessarily expressed through passivity and acquiescence.
These demonstrated variations raised questions about the relative roles of biologylearningand cultural pressures in personality characteristics.Course Summary Master the important human growth and development topics with the video lessons and quizzes in this review course. The Theory-Theory of Concepts.
The Theory-Theory of concepts is a view of how concepts are structured, acquired, and deployed. Concepts, as they will be understood here, are mental representations that are implicated in many of our higher thought processes, including various forms of reasoning and inference, categorization, .
Biology: Biology, study of living things and their vital processes that deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. Modern principles of other fields, such as chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example, are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.
E. Edwards, J.A. King, in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Stress hormones have been strongly linked to the pathogenesis of affective disorders, and exposure to stress challenges early in development sets the stage for permanent changes in the functioning of the stress response.
Consequently, it has been hypothesized that a dysfunction in stress hormone .
Search Help This function enables you to search for a Keystone Symposia meeting by any word in the meeting title, location, organizer names, meeting summary or sessions (including session names, speaker names and talk titles).
Linguistics TOP Web sites. Meta-index of linguistics resources: Christopher Manning's site at the University of Sydney, Australia.. Fields of Linguistics by the Linguistics Society of America. Literature (chronological) Peirce, Charles S.
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