John Bowlby 2.
Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some Attachment theory paper during the period from about six months to two years of age.
During the later part of this period, children begin to use attachment figures familiar people as a secure base to explore from and return to. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships.
The human infant is considered by attachment theorists to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. However, different relationship experiences can lead to different developmental outcomes.
Mary Ainsworth developed a theory of a number of attachment patterns or "styles" in infants in which distinct characteristics were identified; these were secure attachment, avoidant attachment, anxious attachment and, later, disorganized Attachment theory paper.
In addition to care-seeking by children, peer relationships of all ages, romantic and sexual attraction, and responses to the care needs of infants or sick or elderly adults may be construed as including some components of attachment behavior.
Earlier theories[ edit ] A theory of attachment is a framework of ideas that attempt to explain attachment, the almost universal human tendency to prefer certain familiar companions over other people, especially when ill, injured, or distressed. Most early observers focused on the anxiety displayed by infants and toddlers when threatened with separation from a familiar caregiver.
In the s, the British developmentalist Ian Suttie put forward the suggestion that the child's need for affection was a primary one, not based on hunger or other physical gratifications.
This approach posited that infants were dependent on adult caregivers but that dependency was, or should be outgrown as the individual matured. Such an approach perceived attachment behaviour in older children as regressive whereas within attachment theory older children and adults remain attached and indeed a secure attachment is associated with independent exploratory behaviour rather than dependence.
Maternal deprivation Bowlby was influenced by the beginnings of the object relations school of psychoanalysis and in particular, Melanie Kleinalthough he profoundly disagreed with the psychoanalytic belief then prevalent that saw infants' responses as relating to their internal fantasy life rather than to real life events.
As Bowlby began to formulate his concept of attachment, he was influenced by case studies by Levy, Powdermaker, Lowrey, Bender and Goldfarb. He and Bowlby collaborated in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital illustrating the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers.
This film was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visiting by parents. This proposition was both influential in terms of the effect on the institutional care of children, and highly controversial. Attachment theory Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure.
Mary Ainsworth's innovative methodology and comprehensive observational studies informed much of the theory, expanded its concepts and enabled some of its tenets to be empirically tested. Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in and respectively.
Imprinting, a behavior characteristic of some birds and a very few mammals, involves rapid learning of recognition by a young bird or animal exposed to a conspecific or an object or organism that behaves suitably.
The learning is possible only within a limited age period, known as a critical period. This rapid learning and development of familiarity with an animate or inanimate object is accompanied by a tendency to stay close to the object and to follow when it moves; the young creature is said to have been imprinted on the object when this occurs.
As the imprinted bird or animal reaches reproductive maturity, its courtship behavior is directed toward objects that resemble the imprinting object.
Bowlby's attachment concepts later included the ideas that attachment involves learning from experience during a limited age period, and that the learning that occurs during that time influences adult behavior.
However, he did not apply the imprinting concept in its entirety to human attachment, nor assume that human development was as simple as that of birds. He did, however, consider that attachment behavior was best explained as instinctive in nature, an approach that does not rule out the effect of experience, but that stresses the readiness the young child brings to social interactions.
In particular he was influenced by observations of young children separated from familiar caregivers, as provided during World War II by Anna Freud and her colleague Dorothy Burlingham.
He rejected both Freudian " drive-theory ", which he called the Cupboard Love theory of relationships, and early object-relations theory as both in his view failed to see the attachment as a psychological bond in its own right rather than an instinct derived from feeding or sexuality.
Instead he posited that several lines of development were possible, the outcome of which depended on the interaction between the organism and the environment. In attachment this would mean that although a developing child has a propensity to form attachments, the nature of those attachments depends on the environment to which the child is exposed.
According to Craik, prediction occurs when a "small-scale model" consisting of brain events is used to represent not only the external environment, but the individual's own possible actions.In this essay I have selected 3 different theories, which will focus on human growth development theories, I will demonstrate my understanding of each theory and explain the psychological disturbances which are linked to each one and demonstrate how these theory can be off use to the counsellor in therapy.
Attachment Theory research papers delve into the psychological theory that attempts to understand a specific aspect of interpersonal relationships.
Attachment theory is a psychological theory that attempts to understand a specific aspect of interpersonal relationships. To begin to understand the attachment theory one must first understand and have a clear definition of what attachment is. From my point of view attachment is a lasting, secure and positive bond between a child and a caregiver, a reciprocal relationship.
Attachment Theory This Research Paper Attachment Theory and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on attheheels.com Autor: review • January 4, • Research Paper • 1, Words (8 Pages) • 2, Views4/4(1). Running head: THE HISTORY OF ATTACHMENT THEORY 1 The History of Attachment Theory A Research Paper Presented to The Faculty of the Adler Graduate School.
Theory Analysis ЎV Attachment Theory Background Origin 1. Founder: John Bowlby () 2. Theoretical Background: Attachment theory is originated from psycho-analytical, combined the wisdom of ethology, biology and developmental psychology/5(1).