Overview of recent space achievements Motivations for space activity Although the possibility of exploring space has long excited people in many walks of life, for most of the latter 20th century, only national governments could afford the very high costs of launching people and machines into space. This reality meant that space exploration had to serve very broad interests, and it indeed has done so in a variety of ways. Government space programs have increased knowledge, served as indicators of national prestige and power, enhanced national security and military strength, and provided significant benefits to the general public. In areas where the private sector could profit from activities in space, most notably the use of satellites as telecommunication relays, commercial space activity has flourished without government funding.
Native Americans in the United States This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory.
It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States.
The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringiaa land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Ageand then spread southward throughout the Americas. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the early modern period.
While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus ' voyages of toin practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.
Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as " Neolithic ," which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions.
They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases;  see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culturea megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points.
Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.
Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B.
According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories. Other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas. A Folsom point for a spear. The Folsom Tradition was characterized by use of Folsom points as projectile tips, and activities known from kill sites, where slaughter and butchering of bison took place.
Linguists, anthropologists and archeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians. They were the earliest ancestors of the Athabascan - speaking peoples, including the present-day and historical Navajo and Apache.
They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally. People did not live there year-round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.
Since the s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures built complexes with multiple earthwork mounds ; they were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods.
Poverty Point is a 1 square mile 2. Artifacts show the people traded with other Native Americans located from Georgia to the Great Lakes region. This is one among numerous mound sites of complex indigenous cultures throughout the Mississippi and Ohio valleys.
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They were one of several succeeding cultures often referred to as mound builders. The term "Woodland" was coined in the s and refers to prehistoric sites dated between the Archaic period and the Mississippian cultures. The Hopewell tradition is the term for the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from BCE to CE.
At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario.
Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange; most activity was conducted along the waterways that served as their major transportation routes. The Hopewell exchange system traded materials from all over the United States.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast were of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they shared certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
Their gift-giving feast, potlatchis a highly complex event where people gather in order to commemorate special events such as the raising of a Totem pole or the appointment or election of a new chief.
The most famous artistic feature of the culture is the Totem pole, with carvings of animals and other characters to commemorate cultural beliefs, legends, and notable events.
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